Thursday, March 19, 2020

psychophysics essays

psychophysics essays The Weber -Fechner Principle: An Approximate psychological law relating the degree of response or sensation of a sense organ and the intensity of the stimulus. The law asserts that equal increments of sensation are associated with equal increments of the logarithm of the stimulus, or that the just noticeable difference in any sensation results from a change in the stimulus, which bears a constant ratio to the value of the stimulus. Weber was the first German anatomist and physiologist to introduce the concept of the just-noticeable difference, which is the smallest observable difference between two similar stimuli. From 1818 until 1871 Weber was a professor at the University of Leipzig. Weber is best known for his work on the sensory response to weight, temperature, and pressure. Weber stated that, in order for any increase in the intensity of the stimulus a threshold of sensation must be passed. This increase would create the just-noticeable difference. The ratio Weber discovered was the total intensity of sensation, rather than an absolute figure. Greater weight had to be added to heavier objects in order for the person to notice the change. Weber's observations were formed mathematically by Gustav Theodor Fechner, which he later called Weber's law. Fechner was a German physicist and philosopher; he was an influential figure in the development of psychophysics. He was concerned with the quantitative relations between sensations and the stimuli producing them. When Fechner was 16, he began medical school at the University of Leipzig where he studied anatomy under Weber. Fechner upon graduation discovered his interested lead more toward physics and mathematics than medicine. Fechner by the end of the 1830's had written several papers on the perception of complementary and subjective colors. In 1840 his article on subjective afterimages w ...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Parsons Chairs and Parsons

Parsons Chairs and Parsons Parsons Chairs and Parsons Parsons Chairs and Parsons By Maeve Maddox The first time I heard the term parsons chair I immediately imagined that the name derived from some quaint country custom of seating the visiting preacher on the best chair in the parlor. Not so. The Parsons chair takes its name from its place of invention: the Parsons School of Design founded in Paris in 1921 by Frank Alvah Parsons. According to an article on a site called Modern Dining Chairs, The parsons chair is virtually always crafted of hardwood, and features a slightly curving, squared backrest and legs. They are usually featured with slipcover upholstery that entirely covers the legs and gives the chair a solid, monumental appearance. This slipcover is optional or absent on many recent models. Furniture retailers don’t seem to agree as to the spelling. You can find Parsons chair, parsons chair, Parson chair and parson chair. Until a chair design expert corrects me, I’ll go with Parsons chair in recognition of the fact that the name comes from a proper noun. However, since Parsons is not a commercially-registered word, Im sure that parsons chair cannot be considered incorrect. The word parson meaning â€Å"clergyman† derives ultimately from the same Latin word that gives us person in the sense of â€Å"human being.† The word entered English from Anglo-Fr., O.Fr. persone curate, parson. Person may have come to mean the person in charge of the local church by shortening the Latin phrase persona ecclesiae person of the church. I suppose that a pronunciation variant turned person into parson. The word parsonage, â€Å"house for the parson,† is documented from the 15th century. The word parson occurs in several English expressions. One that I find amusing is the parson’s nose, a reference to the fatty tail end of a cooked chicken or turkey. My granny used to gross us out by eating that bit. She may have called it the pope’s nose. Here are some other words used to refer to personnae ecclesiae. chaplain clergyman cleric curate pastor preacher priest minister rector vicar Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Is She a "Lady" or a "Woman"?Time Words: Era, Epoch, and EonThrew and Through

Sunday, February 16, 2020

The American Revolution Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The American Revolution - Research Paper Example The colonies of America rejected the power of the parliament of Britain to govern them abroad without any form of representation and then barred all royal officials. By 1774 each colony in America had created a provincial congress to govern or rule itself but still constrained within the empire. The Great Britain instead of engaging in diplomacy, it responded sending its troops to re-establish and re-impose direct rule. As a reaction to the British response, the American colonies through second continental congress joined together to defend their self governance and manage against the armed conflict with the British rule. In addition, the States vowed that the British Empire via acts of anarchy had no power to claim their allegiance. Additionally, the American Revolution was as a consequence of series of intellectual, political and social transformations in ancient American society and government. The Americans were against the oligarchies that characterized European societies at tha t time instead calling for development of republicanism based on enlightenment comprehension of liberalism. The American Revolution was facilitated by a number of notions and events that merged and led to social and political separation of colonial possessions from home nation and combining those of former individual colonies to create an independent nation (Bilven 66-8). The American Revolution started in 1763 after the British military recorded a series of victories during the French and Indian war that led to an end of the French military might that was initially a threat to the British North American colonies. The colonial separation for England was the primary cause of the American Revolution evolved and rapidly grew as a smoldering flame of anger beginning with taxes imposed by Britain on thirteen colonies devoid of representation. This was necessitated by the Stamp Act of 1765. Britain enacted some policies that aimed to collect taxes from the American colonies. For instance, the Britons adopted the policy that directed all colonies under British rule to pay larger amount of costs linked with keeping them in the empire. Britain unfair practice of imposing direct taxes on American colonies in order to pay or defray its past European wars led in eventual separation form mother country. This was also followed by other policies that aimed to manifest British might, all which proved meaningless, unworthy and unpopular in America. The main reason why these ideas and policies were unpopular in America was that the colonies laced elected representatives in the ruling Britain parliament, thus leading many colonists consider the policies as a violation of human rights and illegitimate. In 1772, some colonists started to create communities which would be used for their own provincial congresses governance. Two years later, the provincial congresses in most colonies rejected the British parliament and hence effectively replaced the British ruling machines in former colonies. When the Britons reacted by sending troops to impose direct rule, the local representatives in these colonies started to mobilize and coordinate militias. The revolutionaries set up the second continental congress

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Discussion-MODULE 11 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion-MODULE 11 - Essay Example The Mongolian World system lasted between 1206 and 1405. Genghis Khan expanded the Mongolian empire to the Pacific Ocean while his grandson expanded the empire into China. The Ming world system defeated the Mongolian system under the leadership of Zheng He. This system lasted between 1368 and 1644. The Ming world system led to the spread of Confucianism, great artistry, and economic growth. From lecture, the video "Chinese Treasure Fleets,† and the primary source reading, we derive that Zheng He was a fleet admiral who led the Ming Dynasty. He went for seven voyages to over 30 countries in Africa, South Asia, Persian Gulf, and the Pacific. Zheng He travelled between 1405 and 1433 to expand the Chinese maritime in Asia and establishing commercial networks across the pacific and Indian oceans. He led a fleet of high-tech and large trading vessels for expedition. Zheng He prioritized diplomacy but also adopted military tactics to assert Chinese influence. Zheng He’s ships were high-tech since they were long, fashionable, and could carry all the other ships by renowned explorers like Columbus. According to lecture and the article by Alfred Crosby, the â€Å"Columbian Exchange† related to the exchange of livestock, traditions, plants, knowledge, technology, and people between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia. Maize and potatoes were important plants in the â€Å"Columbian Exchange† since they were staple foods, dominated bilateral trade, and enhanced population growth in the two

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Location Determinants of FDI in Transition Regions

Location Determinants of FDI in Transition Regions An essential aspect of globalization in past period has been the progressing grows in foreign direct investment (FDI). According to assessments of UNCTAD (2000) experts estimation, since 1979 to 1999 the volume of the world FDI funds to worlds GDP boosted by 16 per cent and relatively the proportion of world FDI streams increased by 14 per cent. Such a progressive expansion explains as the FDI determinants plays a leading role in development of any countrys economy, in terms of macro and micro parameters (Lipsey, 2001). Most of time FDI is provided with developed countrys strong market orientations to emerging countries, where market is weak. To expose most the effective conditions which are attracts FDI determinants in the host regions, a number of researches have been done. As a result of this study has concluded that there is a large impact on a market size, GNP and economic growth rather than investment incentives. However, the circumstances of FDI are various in each country because all of them have weak and strong markets and therefore have different outcomes of FDI stocks. The transition regions such as CIS and CEE regions have been recently studied comprehensively. There is a large empirical literatures implemented the FDI effects, as an engine machine for the transition regions. Due to advantages that related to the introduction of new technologies and innovations, new managerial techniques, development of additional skills, increased capitals, improvement of working conditions and the development of the industrial sectors in the transition regions (Caves, 1974 and Perez, 1997). Although, several policy makers viewed that FDI activities might provide negative effects on countrys economic development. This diversification followed by foreigners intensity in the host markets. The traditional debate stands for relationship among FDI and the prospects for economic growth. The study is divided into six parts. Chapter two will examine the results of several empirical studies of FDI activities, by examining series of positive and negative effects on the transition regions economies. Chapter three will review the mechanism of FDI activity by exampling its various types. Moreover, this chapter will briefly estimate FDI types affects on transition companies. Chapter four draws economic overview of the Kazakhstans market condition and the intensity of economy growth since the country gained its independence, and furthermore, will illustrate foreign direct investment environment. Chapter five contains FDI challenges and problems in the Kazakhstan oil and gas field industries, and will show government strategies against foreign investors. Finally, the last chapter will conclude with the summary and implications of the study. 2. Literature review Over the past years the endowments of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) are becoming to be very important issue for transition countries. As the FDI activities contribute certain volume of assistances to the national economic growth. However the issue of FDI activities are often stands to be as the implicit hypothesis, in terms of its flows that transports benefit to the host regions economy. The impact of such disputes generally depends on FDI forms behaviour that it takes. The several evidence of empirical literatures have drawn series of positive and negative features of FDI as a basis of assistance growth for transition regions, some of which are examined below. The article by Kozima ( ) has expressed a macroeconomic explication of the FDI behaviours. Kozimas observation analysed that FDI ought to operate as channel trade for the productivity goods and thereby its direction should be followed by the market forces rather than the micro level characteristics. The FDI flows transfer and promote productivity level growth in terms of technology, management skills and know-how from the developed industries to the developing industries. As the outcome of such investment types follow by the improvement of the welfare conditions and by the increase of the industries income. The case can describe the Japanese FDI activities in Asian regions. On the other hand, in some terms FDI activities correspond to negative effects of its location decisions. This presents the case of the presence of more technology advantaged foreign company in an emerging country, where domestic industry might not be comparatively competitive and efficient to compete with the adv antaged foreign company. Therefore, the presence of more advantaged foreign company under such conditions can simply take over domestic firms market shares and decrease countrys economic welfare growth. The case explains by the United States FDI activities after the second war. De Gregorio (1992) stated that FDI may bring several benefits that persuade economic development by its advanced technologies and skilled knowledges, as such factors may promote productivity growth in emerging regions. De Gregorios studies have estimated several facts on economic growth in Latin America. This followed by increasing investment growth which is approximately implemented 0.6 per cent of GDP growth annually from 1950 to 1985. Likewise, Blomstrom and Lipsey (1992) examined FDIs positive externalities. However, such estimations studied under certain conditions that followed by high performed regions and therefore implemented positive performances. According to their studies, countries that only have attained certain level of returns can benefit from FDI activities. This can be correlated to human capitals that provide different income returns in transition regions. As well educated and skilled labour population can utilize the benefits of advanced technologies to the whole economy. The model of Malign emphasizes the potential interaction among FDI that realized by foreign company under the imperfectly competitive industry and a host region with imperfectly competitive domestic market. Hence the foreign firms operation in such market faces with several barriers to gain access into a market, and thus this increase market concentration instead of decreasing. (Cardoso and Dornbush 1989; Grieco 1986) In this term the presence of foreign company can simply turn down domestic savings and investment capacities by taking out rents and funds activity. Moreover, such case can basically trough out domestic firms from local business activities. The international firms might reinvest their capital flows to related industries in the host region and expand their market powers. The repatriation of such reinvestment profits may take out capital from the host region. Far from providing an encouraging impact on profits distribution and social environment improvements by foreigners might sustain a small power of local business partners and suppliers. As they utilize inappropriate intensive technology that might generate small number of labour forces, whereas consigning employees to the category of the unemployed, and this turns down them to set up more productive occupations. Their rigid control over advanced technology and skilled management channels may put off the favourable spillovers and externalities. It is commonly acknowledged that attracting FDI spillovers promote development effects, as the FDI activities symbolize as an essential source of technological spillovers, and as one of the resourceful and practical tools for improvement and upgrading of transition industries. (Dunning and Narula 2004) In fact, FDI spillovers have been enthusiastically supported under the Washington consensus as a universal remedy that leads economic growth and expansion. Because, structural changes highly amalgamate macroeconomic stabilization strategies along with strategies that increase FDI flows. However, the benefit levels are considerably various and the results from FDI assistances procedure are not always positive. (Lall and Narula 2004) Aitken and Harrison (1999) estimated the spillover effects to domestic companies in Venezuela. They investigated exceptionally limited effects of spillovers level. In addition, this spillover levels were mostly delivered from joint ventures. This suggested that relations among foreign and domestic company produce some amount of spillovers. However, its effects can not capture the whole economy. This can be explained when the foreign company in some way induced productivity growth but its financial sector would not be able to capture the plant stage, although it ought to capture even at the aggregate stage. The effects of political intensity have been examined by several policymakers and suggested that relationship among FDI inflows and host country firstly based on the political stability. Alesina and Perotti (1996) examined the impact of political vulnerabilities on economic development and investment. They implemented that an increase of the political intensity in the host region leads to decrease of investment flows. By implementing index of political instabilities that stands beyond of political assassinations, corruption and coups. Campos and Nugent (2002) analysed the causal linkages among investment and growth index by utilizing pooled panel statistics. According to their investigation results, it suggested that there are not so many evidences for the negative linkages among political instability and GDP growth. However, in terms of investment facilities, there are strong causalities of political vulnerability to investment decline. The relation among political volatility and asset markets has been examined by several policymakers. Robin, Liew and Stevens (1996) have examined factors of political volatility in transition regions. According to their analyses the importance of asset returns stands to be more significant in transition regions than in developing regions. As Bussiere and Mulder (1996) implemented their investigation in the twenty three regions and proposed that political vulnerabilities in economic models broadly explicate economic decline the aptitude of economic model to explicate economic decline of transition region. Moreover, they stated such conditions are vulnerable to economic crises when election consequences under uncertainty. Kutan and Zhou (1995) investigated that political intensity in Poland during 1990s had introduced economic reforms that influenced foreign exchange returns and bid-ask spreads. According to their investigation, these events reflected by political volatility that seriously harmed the national currency value in international exchange market. This consequently boosted the bid-ask spreads under the foreign exchange transactions that formulated bid-ask spreads to be more expensive for foreign investors. Likewise, Melvin and Tan (1996) examined political volatilities on foreign exchange market by their studies that implemented similar causes. Ivo Feierabend and Rosalind Feierabend (1966) formulated their Feieraben measure on political instability. This theory based on the countrys political vulnerabilities that considered the amount and concentration of political aggressiveness behaviour that takes place within a nation. According to their definition on political instability it is: the amount of Aggression directed by individual or  groups within the political system against other groups  or against the complex of officeholders and individuals  and groups associated with them. Or, conversely, it is  the amount of aggression directed by these officeholders  against other individuals, groups, or officeholders within  the polity. Using this characterization Feierabends have examined various indicate scales of political vulnerability that based on the amount and concentration of political actions. Feierabends have segregated thirty categories of political actions that were given by various weights. As the more destabilise actions, then the higher influences it obtains. For example, during the election of public servants is estimated to be zero, as this was not followed by aggressiveness of political intensity. However, in cases of assassination of high politic figures, corruptions and coups had estimated up to 5 and 7 scales. In the case of locational decision of foreign companies the political intensity of host regions might lead them out off their domestic market. Aharoni (1960) and Thunell (1977) showed that the intensity of political instability might be very significant measure in the foreign investment activities in the way of location decision. This has been examined that foreign investors in general consider the political vulnerability of the host regions in an unsystematic way. However, a foreign company that operates abroad should put forward its attention on political intensity. This would facilitate in the formulation of tactic for choosing the location and expand further its investment flows. As in some circumstances the host governments might change their political intensity in terms of nationalization. 3. The role of FDIs The priorities of developing economies are obviously comprise under constant revenue growth for their economies through strengthening technological capabilities, increasing investment rates, and enhancing the competitiveness of their production in the global marketplace. By providing the opportunities to economic growth, creating employment potentialities and conserving the environment for future population. As the globalisation and liberalization of the world economy constrains the developing economies to upgrade abilities and resources of their economies. The modern global can be classified by speedy progress in knowledge and economical capability under competitive circumstances. Therefore, in globalizing world the economic growth can be implemented constantly only if states can promote privileged value-added performances to supply goods and services for their open market strategies. Among these attitudes MNEs and FDI activities can apply for an essential function in complementing their efforts. As their assets is one of the main features of promoting local markets or entire enterprises to the international market. FDI has been characterized differently by several empirical literatures. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) describes FDI as an investment made to acquire a lasting interest in a foreign enterprise with the purpose of having an effective voice in its management (Bjorvatn, 2000). Generally, FDI activities are undertaken by Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) that provide a huge capital of investment flows over the world. These investment flows classified as a market seeking, its purpose to serve for an existing market. For instance, owing to a high tariff rates, the company needs to relocate its activities to the emerging country, as firms activities were previously supplied by exporting. The motivation for such investment in the host economy explains in better serve for a local market through production, market growth and market size. The case of Japanese FDI in vehicle production in the US can be implemented as the market seeking (Duning, 1993). The efficiency seeking appears with a firm that involves in gaining economic scale and scope activities from the host economy. In this perspective, close relations with the western countries would lead to corporate network linkages and the presence of high transport and communication costs will encourage more of efficiency-seeking FDI. Finally, the asset seeking or resource seeking occurs when a firm invest into a foreign country to find natural and low cost labour force resources that not available within their country. It might follow by natural resources, cheap labour forces and furthermore, by raw materials. Again the case of the UN and Japan can present the view of asset seeking by searching for a cheap labour force in Asia. In contrast to market seeking, it is able to serve for a home and for a third countrys market. This tendency follows particularly by industrialised sectors that subsidized by MNEs. Therefore, such accessibilities in physical infrastructure and skilled and cheap labour forces are the main trends of resource seeking. 3.1. FDI types In analysing market entry through FDI flows, there two choices such as, greenfield investment and takeover of an existing company. Through greenfield investments a company which invests a small amount of inputs, and afterwards when demand increases it can enlarge that investment. A greenfield investment frequently sets up from building a new company after the governments of host countries would approve that, because of the location perhaps can be in the profitable place and produce a new production capacity. In discussing another type of FDI is the takeover of an existing business through the acquisitions and mergers (MA). In other words, foreign companies appear in the emerging countries and purchases already existing local business by gaining the packages of the company, as a result, such companies turn out to be an affiliated. In the past years MA have seen massive surge by reaching more than 50 per cent (Theodore 1998). Admittedly, there are several trends that foreign firms seek to invest their capitals abroad. These features were partly analysed by Dunnings OLI theory. As Dunning (1993) describes three conditions that firms carry to take FDI activities. Ownership advantages- appears, when the foreign firm is capable to compete with the domestic firm. It can be attained through specific skills or assets that follow by advanced management and technological capabilities. Companies that endowed with ownership advantages basically enlarge their operations in a foreign country to internalize the growing benefits from ownership advantages. Location advantages- aspects as natural and mineral resources, transport costs and low prices, access to the domestic market determine the presence of the investment. Moreover, factors such as social and political stability and business environment that follows by stable prices and sustainable budget deficit determines location. Internalization advantages- occurs, when the foreign firm is able to retain its multiple activities, rather than licensing or franchising technology to local firms. The case can be implemented, when the firm prevents the technology or assets imitation by rival firms. According to OLI theory, all these criterions should be fulfilled for firms to invest in the host economies. In terms of investment incentives, Dunning (1993) pointed that OLI theory is generally stands for a characteristic of the host country and for the MNEs. This follows by attracted or specific location, skilled or cheap labour forces, infrastructure and political stability. Undoubtedly, these trends are very significant for the location of FDI assets, however, the significance of investment incentives have raised in the past years. Over the world countries have lowered their entry barriers to persuade a massive amount of foreign subsidizes and generated FDI incentives to attract more foreign investment flows. Therefore, operations such as low taxes, attractive tariff regimes, and market preferences, investment in infrastructure, financial grants and loans for the foreign firms took the form of investment incentives. Basically, FDI incentives are similar in developed and developing regions. Regarding to UNSTAD (2001), a small number of regions participate for FDI activities without subs idies nowadays. This report estimates that 95 per cent of adjustments in FDI legislations for the 1990s were encouraging to foreign companies and furthermore, these adjustments followed by FDI promotions and incentives. The motivation of such reasons primarily tended by prospect of seeing positive spillovers inflows into host economies UNSTAD (2001). In the context of positive spillovers host governments tries to attract foreign subsidizes to their economies as they considers that FDIs spillovers generate positive externalities to the domestic companies by transferring know-how and advanced technology. The following terms can be implemented Domestic companies might benefit from foreign production processes as they diffuse new technologies. It can be implemented through labour turnover and through imitation. As the foreign firms gain access into domestic market equilibrium, it is makes domestic companies to be more an incentive to protect market shares income (Ponomareva, 2000). These systematic alterations might cause various sorts of spillovers that bring to productivity growth into domestic companies, as the spillovers effects from foreign companies can be significant. On the other hand, several literatures provided that spillovers effects can have negative forms. In article by Aitken and Harrison (1999) the negative impacts of spillovers introduced on the domestic firms productivity, in terms of market steeling effect. For example, when the foreign company gain access to the foreign market and take over local market shares by its technology advantages. In other words, the MNEs advantages can simply trough out domestic firms productivities and so, local companys productivity declines. 3.2. Spillover activities and types. There is a large empirical study that implements the significance of spillover activities in the host economies. According to Blomstrom and Kokko (1997), the importance of the FDI spillovers is not only the investment in a new plant and equipment, but also transfers of technology, skills and capital for the host countries. Consequently, FDI arrives through managerial and financial resources, technical support and strategic assets. This can be companys brand name that takes place by comparative advantage to domestic entrepreneurs. Spillover activities can be taken during foreign companies presence that provides efficiency and productivity to the domestic firms. The positive spillovers followed by foreign investment enterprises that provide benefits to domestic companies, in terms of productivity technologies that do not exhaust cost for gains (UN-ECE, 2001). In the perspective of the FDI spillovers, several policymakers have concerned that the presence of foreign firms lead to productivity growth of domestic companies. Whereas, other authors implemented that, there is also a negative impact of FDI spillovers. One of the common explanations of FDI in transition regions is assistance in restructuring domestic firms. As Wallner (1998) suggest that, partly an emerging firm occurs under the soft budget constraint and thereby FDIs activity might provide in a positive way. As the presence of the foreign firms provide various incentives to reduce funds to domestic companies and as a result involves in companies restructuring. Another positive feature of FDI spillovers importance is transfer of technology and know-how to domestic firms. On the other hand, this can also provide negative spillovers. For instance, in terms of product market under imperfect competition, that can follow by a considerable decrease of the market shares of the local firm s and moreover, can trough out domestic firms from the market. The literature by De Gregorio and Lee (1998) and Kokko and Borensztien (1994) stated that FDI spillovers can generate in positive way, if only the technology development among foreign and domestic company is not so great. The trends of positive spillovers were found in the next literatures Blomstrom, Sjoholm (1999) in Indonesia, Caves (1974) in Australia and Globerman (1979) in Canada. In the case of negative spillovers the following studies such as Kornings (1999) in Poland and Romania and Aitken and Harrison (1999) in Venezuela have implemented such effects Spillover activities determine two approaches such as direct and indirect approach. The direct approach examines through statistical examples, as the spillover activities are directly correlated to presence of foreign firms (Blomstrom et.al.1999). The purpose of the direct approach frequently leads to productivity measure of local firms to the MNEs presences. There is on common method that utilizes evaluation of production functions that estimates through the foreign firms presences upon industry productivities and on its levels. In studies of econometric the spillover activities might expose the total impact of productivity to host firms under the foreign presence. However, the impacts are frequently not specific nor implement its effects (Blomstrom and Kokko 2003). The indirect approach examines through channels in which FDI spillovers may take in, and afterwards estimate the forcefulness of those channels. Likewise direct approach, there is a large studies on its channels, but it can be difficult to implement general conclusion from these studies (Blomstrom et.al.1999). Another spillover activity in the host industries persuaded by two types such as inter (vertical) and intra (horizontal) industry spillovers. The vertical spillovers appear when foreign company provide impacts to the domestic suppliers. This can be under different industries that engaged in a long term contract among foreign company and a domestic supplier (Smarzynka, 2002). The horizontal spillovers result from the occurrence of the MNEs that brings competition to the host economy. There are five channels that chase horizontal spillover activities such as competition, transfer of technology and RD, industrial management, demonstration and imitation activities and human capital and labour turnover (Blomstrom et. at. 1999). According to UNECE report (2001), on intra industry spillovers in transition regions have estimated FDIs horizontal and vertical impacts. The following (Table 2) estimated that basically the presences of foreign companies did not perform better and thus, they have not generated the expected positive spillovers to local companies. Virtually, the FDI spillovers turned to be negative in these manufacturing regions. Generally, CEE regions were under negative coefficient performances. The exception was followed with Estonias and Russias manufactures which are presented positive coefficients. The results suggested that it is not unexpected as the initial conditions and economic environment was critical during the transition period. Those countries essentially had experienced various shocks and thus, local companies were not capable to react to the challenges that followed by FDI. This however, can be temporary factors and these regions will be more competitive with the next FDI flows. 3.3. FDI flows in transition economies. Over the decade ago the former Soviet Countries and central and eastern Europe regions have been transferred themselves from centrally planned system to open market economy. This systemic transformation has seen a massive upsurge in FDI inflows that afterwards assisted to recovery their internal economic vulnerabilities. As the initial stages of economy conditions experienced several economic shocks and therefore domestic growth of these regions went down. According to UNECE report (2001) the industrial productivity decreased by 34 per cent over the transition regions. Furthermore, in some regions it even followed by 64 per cent. This economic collapse was stated by macroeconomic imbalances, monetary overhangs, and by external debts. Consequently, these host regions were under extremely necessitate of liberalization, privatization and stabilization reforms that followed with the foreign subsidizes. There are strong evidences that FDI tends to boost the initial stage of economic perfo rmances. The following trends were considered such as, FDI frequently helps to the host country to amalgamate into the global economy. FDI increases the aggregate rate of investment. FDI generates transformation of hard technology that process technology and product. FDI engenders relocation of soft technology that processes organization, management and sourcing technologies FDI tends to encourage networking and subcontracting patterns that conducive for host firms to improve their technologies and productivities. (Dyker 1999) Thus, the importance of FDI in these regions was not only in supplying funds for the acquisition of new equipment, but also it seen transformation of advanced technology and organisational forms that led from more developed economies. Attracting FDI assets are considerable issue for the transition regions, as it leads to catch up policy with more developed economies by improving their economic efficiency. According to Transition Report (EBRD 2007), in the past decade the former soviet regions and central and eastern European countries have been successfully stabilized their economic circumstances. As their living standards have improved and moreover political, social, economic and legal issues were adopted and improved by state agencies. The transformation processes however implemented in different stage as their initial conditions were varied over all regions. Some of regions have simply been mistreated by foreign investors as the investment inflows directed more toward to some regi ons. (EBRD, 1999, Henriot, 2003) This discrepancy might be implemented by the high economic dynamism of more advanced transition economies. There are some regions that have been under the greater concern to investors due to of their mineral wealth resources, and close frontiers to the European Union countries. Moreover, in the last 10 years, it was obvious that foreign investors were in favour to a more stable political economy and to a favourable environment that had followed a consistent privatization policy (Henriot, 2003). According to table the following four regions experienced a large amount of FDI flows. It is clearly seen that Hungarys state was dominant in foreign investment flows. Its economic condition was greater then in other regions and furthermore political relations with the western countries brought attention of foreigners. As the view of Hungary implemented beneficial infrastructure and economical ability to adopt foreign subsidizes. In addition, in its early sophisticated privatization strategy on state owned firms made favourable environment for foreign investors. Likewise FDI flows in Poland and Czech Republic also had experienced a fast growth. This rapid increase was experienced through acquisition of state owned enterprises that had involved foreign investors. The Slovaks FDI inflows entered later in contrast to Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic and therefore had the lowest rate. Although, in most cases its small sized enterprises were privatized by foreign investors. Through the government policy that could proceed with the well managed economic reforms and externa l relations with the neighbouring regions. The total stock of FDI inflows for country size by population and GDP analysed that Hungary and the Czech Republic have succeeded significantly then Poland and Slovak Republic. Nevertheless, these regions tended to recover faster in contrast to the CIS regions. In the perspective of CIS regions, FDI stocks remain with low attitudes, despite their performance in accomplishing macroeconomic policy and managing relatively high growth rate. (Table 2.1.) illustrates that regions such as Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan have chased the largest proportion of FDI stocks, whereas Tajikistan demonstrated the lowest amount of FDI stocks. Similarly, shares of FDI stocks in GDP for Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have performed better. In terms of per capita of FDI stocks, regions as Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan have performed worthily, whereas Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan turned with the lowest rate. In comparing the result of FDI stock levels of Central European to Central Asian regions, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Russia were shown with the better perform attitudes. This impact followed with large inflows of FDI stocks in oil and gas fields. Nevertheless, these regions levels of FDI stocks are still smaller then in other central European regions. The case of such underperformance of the some CIS regions can be attributed by the tardiness in privatization, incapability and disinclination in reform strategies and inefficienc Location Determinants of FDI in Transition Regions Location Determinants of FDI in Transition Regions An essential aspect of globalization in past period has been the progressing grows in foreign direct investment (FDI). According to assessments of UNCTAD (2000) experts estimation, since 1979 to 1999 the volume of the world FDI funds to worlds GDP boosted by 16 per cent and relatively the proportion of world FDI streams increased by 14 per cent. Such a progressive expansion explains as the FDI determinants plays a leading role in development of any countrys economy, in terms of macro and micro parameters (Lipsey, 2001). Most of time FDI is provided with developed countrys strong market orientations to emerging countries, where market is weak. To expose most the effective conditions which are attracts FDI determinants in the host regions, a number of researches have been done. As a result of this study has concluded that there is a large impact on a market size, GNP and economic growth rather than investment incentives. However, the circumstances of FDI are various in each country because all of them have weak and strong markets and therefore have different outcomes of FDI stocks. The transition regions such as CIS and CEE regions have been recently studied comprehensively. There is a large empirical literatures implemented the FDI effects, as an engine machine for the transition regions. Due to advantages that related to the introduction of new technologies and innovations, new managerial techniques, development of additional skills, increased capitals, improvement of working conditions and the development of the industrial sectors in the transition regions (Caves, 1974 and Perez, 1997). Although, several policy makers viewed that FDI activities might provide negative effects on countrys economic development. This diversification followed by foreigners intensity in the host markets. The traditional debate stands for relationship among FDI and the prospects for economic growth. The study is divided into six parts. Chapter two will examine the results of several empirical studies of FDI activities, by examining series of positive and negative effects on the transition regions economies. Chapter three will review the mechanism of FDI activity by exampling its various types. Moreover, this chapter will briefly estimate FDI types affects on transition companies. Chapter four draws economic overview of the Kazakhstans market condition and the intensity of economy growth since the country gained its independence, and furthermore, will illustrate foreign direct investment environment. Chapter five contains FDI challenges and problems in the Kazakhstan oil and gas field industries, and will show government strategies against foreign investors. Finally, the last chapter will conclude with the summary and implications of the study. 2. Literature review Over the past years the endowments of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) are becoming to be very important issue for transition countries. As the FDI activities contribute certain volume of assistances to the national economic growth. However the issue of FDI activities are often stands to be as the implicit hypothesis, in terms of its flows that transports benefit to the host regions economy. The impact of such disputes generally depends on FDI forms behaviour that it takes. The several evidence of empirical literatures have drawn series of positive and negative features of FDI as a basis of assistance growth for transition regions, some of which are examined below. The article by Kozima ( ) has expressed a macroeconomic explication of the FDI behaviours. Kozimas observation analysed that FDI ought to operate as channel trade for the productivity goods and thereby its direction should be followed by the market forces rather than the micro level characteristics. The FDI flows transfer and promote productivity level growth in terms of technology, management skills and know-how from the developed industries to the developing industries. As the outcome of such investment types follow by the improvement of the welfare conditions and by the increase of the industries income. The case can describe the Japanese FDI activities in Asian regions. On the other hand, in some terms FDI activities correspond to negative effects of its location decisions. This presents the case of the presence of more technology advantaged foreign company in an emerging country, where domestic industry might not be comparatively competitive and efficient to compete with the adv antaged foreign company. Therefore, the presence of more advantaged foreign company under such conditions can simply take over domestic firms market shares and decrease countrys economic welfare growth. The case explains by the United States FDI activities after the second war. De Gregorio (1992) stated that FDI may bring several benefits that persuade economic development by its advanced technologies and skilled knowledges, as such factors may promote productivity growth in emerging regions. De Gregorios studies have estimated several facts on economic growth in Latin America. This followed by increasing investment growth which is approximately implemented 0.6 per cent of GDP growth annually from 1950 to 1985. Likewise, Blomstrom and Lipsey (1992) examined FDIs positive externalities. However, such estimations studied under certain conditions that followed by high performed regions and therefore implemented positive performances. According to their studies, countries that only have attained certain level of returns can benefit from FDI activities. This can be correlated to human capitals that provide different income returns in transition regions. As well educated and skilled labour population can utilize the benefits of advanced technologies to the whole economy. The model of Malign emphasizes the potential interaction among FDI that realized by foreign company under the imperfectly competitive industry and a host region with imperfectly competitive domestic market. Hence the foreign firms operation in such market faces with several barriers to gain access into a market, and thus this increase market concentration instead of decreasing. (Cardoso and Dornbush 1989; Grieco 1986) In this term the presence of foreign company can simply turn down domestic savings and investment capacities by taking out rents and funds activity. Moreover, such case can basically trough out domestic firms from local business activities. The international firms might reinvest their capital flows to related industries in the host region and expand their market powers. The repatriation of such reinvestment profits may take out capital from the host region. Far from providing an encouraging impact on profits distribution and social environment improvements by foreigners might sustain a small power of local business partners and suppliers. As they utilize inappropriate intensive technology that might generate small number of labour forces, whereas consigning employees to the category of the unemployed, and this turns down them to set up more productive occupations. Their rigid control over advanced technology and skilled management channels may put off the favourable spillovers and externalities. It is commonly acknowledged that attracting FDI spillovers promote development effects, as the FDI activities symbolize as an essential source of technological spillovers, and as one of the resourceful and practical tools for improvement and upgrading of transition industries. (Dunning and Narula 2004) In fact, FDI spillovers have been enthusiastically supported under the Washington consensus as a universal remedy that leads economic growth and expansion. Because, structural changes highly amalgamate macroeconomic stabilization strategies along with strategies that increase FDI flows. However, the benefit levels are considerably various and the results from FDI assistances procedure are not always positive. (Lall and Narula 2004) Aitken and Harrison (1999) estimated the spillover effects to domestic companies in Venezuela. They investigated exceptionally limited effects of spillovers level. In addition, this spillover levels were mostly delivered from joint ventures. This suggested that relations among foreign and domestic company produce some amount of spillovers. However, its effects can not capture the whole economy. This can be explained when the foreign company in some way induced productivity growth but its financial sector would not be able to capture the plant stage, although it ought to capture even at the aggregate stage. The effects of political intensity have been examined by several policymakers and suggested that relationship among FDI inflows and host country firstly based on the political stability. Alesina and Perotti (1996) examined the impact of political vulnerabilities on economic development and investment. They implemented that an increase of the political intensity in the host region leads to decrease of investment flows. By implementing index of political instabilities that stands beyond of political assassinations, corruption and coups. Campos and Nugent (2002) analysed the causal linkages among investment and growth index by utilizing pooled panel statistics. According to their investigation results, it suggested that there are not so many evidences for the negative linkages among political instability and GDP growth. However, in terms of investment facilities, there are strong causalities of political vulnerability to investment decline. The relation among political volatility and asset markets has been examined by several policymakers. Robin, Liew and Stevens (1996) have examined factors of political volatility in transition regions. According to their analyses the importance of asset returns stands to be more significant in transition regions than in developing regions. As Bussiere and Mulder (1996) implemented their investigation in the twenty three regions and proposed that political vulnerabilities in economic models broadly explicate economic decline the aptitude of economic model to explicate economic decline of transition region. Moreover, they stated such conditions are vulnerable to economic crises when election consequences under uncertainty. Kutan and Zhou (1995) investigated that political intensity in Poland during 1990s had introduced economic reforms that influenced foreign exchange returns and bid-ask spreads. According to their investigation, these events reflected by political volatility that seriously harmed the national currency value in international exchange market. This consequently boosted the bid-ask spreads under the foreign exchange transactions that formulated bid-ask spreads to be more expensive for foreign investors. Likewise, Melvin and Tan (1996) examined political volatilities on foreign exchange market by their studies that implemented similar causes. Ivo Feierabend and Rosalind Feierabend (1966) formulated their Feieraben measure on political instability. This theory based on the countrys political vulnerabilities that considered the amount and concentration of political aggressiveness behaviour that takes place within a nation. According to their definition on political instability it is: the amount of Aggression directed by individual or  groups within the political system against other groups  or against the complex of officeholders and individuals  and groups associated with them. Or, conversely, it is  the amount of aggression directed by these officeholders  against other individuals, groups, or officeholders within  the polity. Using this characterization Feierabends have examined various indicate scales of political vulnerability that based on the amount and concentration of political actions. Feierabends have segregated thirty categories of political actions that were given by various weights. As the more destabilise actions, then the higher influences it obtains. For example, during the election of public servants is estimated to be zero, as this was not followed by aggressiveness of political intensity. However, in cases of assassination of high politic figures, corruptions and coups had estimated up to 5 and 7 scales. In the case of locational decision of foreign companies the political intensity of host regions might lead them out off their domestic market. Aharoni (1960) and Thunell (1977) showed that the intensity of political instability might be very significant measure in the foreign investment activities in the way of location decision. This has been examined that foreign investors in general consider the political vulnerability of the host regions in an unsystematic way. However, a foreign company that operates abroad should put forward its attention on political intensity. This would facilitate in the formulation of tactic for choosing the location and expand further its investment flows. As in some circumstances the host governments might change their political intensity in terms of nationalization. 3. The role of FDIs The priorities of developing economies are obviously comprise under constant revenue growth for their economies through strengthening technological capabilities, increasing investment rates, and enhancing the competitiveness of their production in the global marketplace. By providing the opportunities to economic growth, creating employment potentialities and conserving the environment for future population. As the globalisation and liberalization of the world economy constrains the developing economies to upgrade abilities and resources of their economies. The modern global can be classified by speedy progress in knowledge and economical capability under competitive circumstances. Therefore, in globalizing world the economic growth can be implemented constantly only if states can promote privileged value-added performances to supply goods and services for their open market strategies. Among these attitudes MNEs and FDI activities can apply for an essential function in complementing their efforts. As their assets is one of the main features of promoting local markets or entire enterprises to the international market. FDI has been characterized differently by several empirical literatures. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) describes FDI as an investment made to acquire a lasting interest in a foreign enterprise with the purpose of having an effective voice in its management (Bjorvatn, 2000). Generally, FDI activities are undertaken by Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) that provide a huge capital of investment flows over the world. These investment flows classified as a market seeking, its purpose to serve for an existing market. For instance, owing to a high tariff rates, the company needs to relocate its activities to the emerging country, as firms activities were previously supplied by exporting. The motivation for such investment in the host economy explains in better serve for a local market through production, market growth and market size. The case of Japanese FDI in vehicle production in the US can be implemented as the market seeking (Duning, 1993). The efficiency seeking appears with a firm that involves in gaining economic scale and scope activities from the host economy. In this perspective, close relations with the western countries would lead to corporate network linkages and the presence of high transport and communication costs will encourage more of efficiency-seeking FDI. Finally, the asset seeking or resource seeking occurs when a firm invest into a foreign country to find natural and low cost labour force resources that not available within their country. It might follow by natural resources, cheap labour forces and furthermore, by raw materials. Again the case of the UN and Japan can present the view of asset seeking by searching for a cheap labour force in Asia. In contrast to market seeking, it is able to serve for a home and for a third countrys market. This tendency follows particularly by industrialised sectors that subsidized by MNEs. Therefore, such accessibilities in physical infrastructure and skilled and cheap labour forces are the main trends of resource seeking. 3.1. FDI types In analysing market entry through FDI flows, there two choices such as, greenfield investment and takeover of an existing company. Through greenfield investments a company which invests a small amount of inputs, and afterwards when demand increases it can enlarge that investment. A greenfield investment frequently sets up from building a new company after the governments of host countries would approve that, because of the location perhaps can be in the profitable place and produce a new production capacity. In discussing another type of FDI is the takeover of an existing business through the acquisitions and mergers (MA). In other words, foreign companies appear in the emerging countries and purchases already existing local business by gaining the packages of the company, as a result, such companies turn out to be an affiliated. In the past years MA have seen massive surge by reaching more than 50 per cent (Theodore 1998). Admittedly, there are several trends that foreign firms seek to invest their capitals abroad. These features were partly analysed by Dunnings OLI theory. As Dunning (1993) describes three conditions that firms carry to take FDI activities. Ownership advantages- appears, when the foreign firm is capable to compete with the domestic firm. It can be attained through specific skills or assets that follow by advanced management and technological capabilities. Companies that endowed with ownership advantages basically enlarge their operations in a foreign country to internalize the growing benefits from ownership advantages. Location advantages- aspects as natural and mineral resources, transport costs and low prices, access to the domestic market determine the presence of the investment. Moreover, factors such as social and political stability and business environment that follows by stable prices and sustainable budget deficit determines location. Internalization advantages- occurs, when the foreign firm is able to retain its multiple activities, rather than licensing or franchising technology to local firms. The case can be implemented, when the firm prevents the technology or assets imitation by rival firms. According to OLI theory, all these criterions should be fulfilled for firms to invest in the host economies. In terms of investment incentives, Dunning (1993) pointed that OLI theory is generally stands for a characteristic of the host country and for the MNEs. This follows by attracted or specific location, skilled or cheap labour forces, infrastructure and political stability. Undoubtedly, these trends are very significant for the location of FDI assets, however, the significance of investment incentives have raised in the past years. Over the world countries have lowered their entry barriers to persuade a massive amount of foreign subsidizes and generated FDI incentives to attract more foreign investment flows. Therefore, operations such as low taxes, attractive tariff regimes, and market preferences, investment in infrastructure, financial grants and loans for the foreign firms took the form of investment incentives. Basically, FDI incentives are similar in developed and developing regions. Regarding to UNSTAD (2001), a small number of regions participate for FDI activities without subs idies nowadays. This report estimates that 95 per cent of adjustments in FDI legislations for the 1990s were encouraging to foreign companies and furthermore, these adjustments followed by FDI promotions and incentives. The motivation of such reasons primarily tended by prospect of seeing positive spillovers inflows into host economies UNSTAD (2001). In the context of positive spillovers host governments tries to attract foreign subsidizes to their economies as they considers that FDIs spillovers generate positive externalities to the domestic companies by transferring know-how and advanced technology. The following terms can be implemented Domestic companies might benefit from foreign production processes as they diffuse new technologies. It can be implemented through labour turnover and through imitation. As the foreign firms gain access into domestic market equilibrium, it is makes domestic companies to be more an incentive to protect market shares income (Ponomareva, 2000). These systematic alterations might cause various sorts of spillovers that bring to productivity growth into domestic companies, as the spillovers effects from foreign companies can be significant. On the other hand, several literatures provided that spillovers effects can have negative forms. In article by Aitken and Harrison (1999) the negative impacts of spillovers introduced on the domestic firms productivity, in terms of market steeling effect. For example, when the foreign company gain access to the foreign market and take over local market shares by its technology advantages. In other words, the MNEs advantages can simply trough out domestic firms productivities and so, local companys productivity declines. 3.2. Spillover activities and types. There is a large empirical study that implements the significance of spillover activities in the host economies. According to Blomstrom and Kokko (1997), the importance of the FDI spillovers is not only the investment in a new plant and equipment, but also transfers of technology, skills and capital for the host countries. Consequently, FDI arrives through managerial and financial resources, technical support and strategic assets. This can be companys brand name that takes place by comparative advantage to domestic entrepreneurs. Spillover activities can be taken during foreign companies presence that provides efficiency and productivity to the domestic firms. The positive spillovers followed by foreign investment enterprises that provide benefits to domestic companies, in terms of productivity technologies that do not exhaust cost for gains (UN-ECE, 2001). In the perspective of the FDI spillovers, several policymakers have concerned that the presence of foreign firms lead to productivity growth of domestic companies. Whereas, other authors implemented that, there is also a negative impact of FDI spillovers. One of the common explanations of FDI in transition regions is assistance in restructuring domestic firms. As Wallner (1998) suggest that, partly an emerging firm occurs under the soft budget constraint and thereby FDIs activity might provide in a positive way. As the presence of the foreign firms provide various incentives to reduce funds to domestic companies and as a result involves in companies restructuring. Another positive feature of FDI spillovers importance is transfer of technology and know-how to domestic firms. On the other hand, this can also provide negative spillovers. For instance, in terms of product market under imperfect competition, that can follow by a considerable decrease of the market shares of the local firm s and moreover, can trough out domestic firms from the market. The literature by De Gregorio and Lee (1998) and Kokko and Borensztien (1994) stated that FDI spillovers can generate in positive way, if only the technology development among foreign and domestic company is not so great. The trends of positive spillovers were found in the next literatures Blomstrom, Sjoholm (1999) in Indonesia, Caves (1974) in Australia and Globerman (1979) in Canada. In the case of negative spillovers the following studies such as Kornings (1999) in Poland and Romania and Aitken and Harrison (1999) in Venezuela have implemented such effects Spillover activities determine two approaches such as direct and indirect approach. The direct approach examines through statistical examples, as the spillover activities are directly correlated to presence of foreign firms (Blomstrom et.al.1999). The purpose of the direct approach frequently leads to productivity measure of local firms to the MNEs presences. There is on common method that utilizes evaluation of production functions that estimates through the foreign firms presences upon industry productivities and on its levels. In studies of econometric the spillover activities might expose the total impact of productivity to host firms under the foreign presence. However, the impacts are frequently not specific nor implement its effects (Blomstrom and Kokko 2003). The indirect approach examines through channels in which FDI spillovers may take in, and afterwards estimate the forcefulness of those channels. Likewise direct approach, there is a large studies on its channels, but it can be difficult to implement general conclusion from these studies (Blomstrom et.al.1999). Another spillover activity in the host industries persuaded by two types such as inter (vertical) and intra (horizontal) industry spillovers. The vertical spillovers appear when foreign company provide impacts to the domestic suppliers. This can be under different industries that engaged in a long term contract among foreign company and a domestic supplier (Smarzynka, 2002). The horizontal spillovers result from the occurrence of the MNEs that brings competition to the host economy. There are five channels that chase horizontal spillover activities such as competition, transfer of technology and RD, industrial management, demonstration and imitation activities and human capital and labour turnover (Blomstrom et. at. 1999). According to UNECE report (2001), on intra industry spillovers in transition regions have estimated FDIs horizontal and vertical impacts. The following (Table 2) estimated that basically the presences of foreign companies did not perform better and thus, they have not generated the expected positive spillovers to local companies. Virtually, the FDI spillovers turned to be negative in these manufacturing regions. Generally, CEE regions were under negative coefficient performances. The exception was followed with Estonias and Russias manufactures which are presented positive coefficients. The results suggested that it is not unexpected as the initial conditions and economic environment was critical during the transition period. Those countries essentially had experienced various shocks and thus, local companies were not capable to react to the challenges that followed by FDI. This however, can be temporary factors and these regions will be more competitive with the next FDI flows. 3.3. FDI flows in transition economies. Over the decade ago the former Soviet Countries and central and eastern Europe regions have been transferred themselves from centrally planned system to open market economy. This systemic transformation has seen a massive upsurge in FDI inflows that afterwards assisted to recovery their internal economic vulnerabilities. As the initial stages of economy conditions experienced several economic shocks and therefore domestic growth of these regions went down. According to UNECE report (2001) the industrial productivity decreased by 34 per cent over the transition regions. Furthermore, in some regions it even followed by 64 per cent. This economic collapse was stated by macroeconomic imbalances, monetary overhangs, and by external debts. Consequently, these host regions were under extremely necessitate of liberalization, privatization and stabilization reforms that followed with the foreign subsidizes. There are strong evidences that FDI tends to boost the initial stage of economic perfo rmances. The following trends were considered such as, FDI frequently helps to the host country to amalgamate into the global economy. FDI increases the aggregate rate of investment. FDI generates transformation of hard technology that process technology and product. FDI engenders relocation of soft technology that processes organization, management and sourcing technologies FDI tends to encourage networking and subcontracting patterns that conducive for host firms to improve their technologies and productivities. (Dyker 1999) Thus, the importance of FDI in these regions was not only in supplying funds for the acquisition of new equipment, but also it seen transformation of advanced technology and organisational forms that led from more developed economies. Attracting FDI assets are considerable issue for the transition regions, as it leads to catch up policy with more developed economies by improving their economic efficiency. According to Transition Report (EBRD 2007), in the past decade the former soviet regions and central and eastern European countries have been successfully stabilized their economic circumstances. As their living standards have improved and moreover political, social, economic and legal issues were adopted and improved by state agencies. The transformation processes however implemented in different stage as their initial conditions were varied over all regions. Some of regions have simply been mistreated by foreign investors as the investment inflows directed more toward to some regi ons. (EBRD, 1999, Henriot, 2003) This discrepancy might be implemented by the high economic dynamism of more advanced transition economies. There are some regions that have been under the greater concern to investors due to of their mineral wealth resources, and close frontiers to the European Union countries. Moreover, in the last 10 years, it was obvious that foreign investors were in favour to a more stable political economy and to a favourable environment that had followed a consistent privatization policy (Henriot, 2003). According to table the following four regions experienced a large amount of FDI flows. It is clearly seen that Hungarys state was dominant in foreign investment flows. Its economic condition was greater then in other regions and furthermore political relations with the western countries brought attention of foreigners. As the view of Hungary implemented beneficial infrastructure and economical ability to adopt foreign subsidizes. In addition, in its early sophisticated privatization strategy on state owned firms made favourable environment for foreign investors. Likewise FDI flows in Poland and Czech Republic also had experienced a fast growth. This rapid increase was experienced through acquisition of state owned enterprises that had involved foreign investors. The Slovaks FDI inflows entered later in contrast to Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic and therefore had the lowest rate. Although, in most cases its small sized enterprises were privatized by foreign investors. Through the government policy that could proceed with the well managed economic reforms and externa l relations with the neighbouring regions. The total stock of FDI inflows for country size by population and GDP analysed that Hungary and the Czech Republic have succeeded significantly then Poland and Slovak Republic. Nevertheless, these regions tended to recover faster in contrast to the CIS regions. In the perspective of CIS regions, FDI stocks remain with low attitudes, despite their performance in accomplishing macroeconomic policy and managing relatively high growth rate. (Table 2.1.) illustrates that regions such as Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan have chased the largest proportion of FDI stocks, whereas Tajikistan demonstrated the lowest amount of FDI stocks. Similarly, shares of FDI stocks in GDP for Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan have performed better. In terms of per capita of FDI stocks, regions as Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan have performed worthily, whereas Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan turned with the lowest rate. In comparing the result of FDI stock levels of Central European to Central Asian regions, the Republic of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Russia were shown with the better perform attitudes. This impact followed with large inflows of FDI stocks in oil and gas fields. Nevertheless, these regions levels of FDI stocks are still smaller then in other central European regions. The case of such underperformance of the some CIS regions can be attributed by the tardiness in privatization, incapability and disinclination in reform strategies and inefficienc

Friday, January 17, 2020

Rhetorical mode Essay

Rhetorical modes are methods for effectively communicating through language and writing. Complete the following chart to identify the purpose and structure of the various rhetorical modes used in academic writing. Provide at least two tips for writing each type of rhetorical device. NOTE: You may not copy and paste anything directly from the textbook or a web site. All information included in this assignment must be written in your own words. Rhetorical Mode Purpose – Explain when or why each rhetorical mode is used. Structure – Identify the organizational method that works best with each rhetorical mode. Tips – Provide two tips for writing in each rhetorical mode. Narration Narration is used to tell stories. Narrative writing typically progresses in chronological order. A plot summary can help with organization. Keeping the human senses in mind can help keep details strong. Illustration An essay that clearly demonstrates and supports a point through the use of evidence. The thesis should be at the beginning, the supporting evidence in the body of the paper. Should use a wide variety of words and phrasing. The evidence should be appropriate to the topics and the audience. Description To make sure your audience is fully immersed in the words on the page by using sensory details. Spatial order, depending on the writer, descriptions could go from top to bottom or left to right. Avoid empty descriptors if possible. Use spatial order to organize your descriptive writing. Classification To break the broad subject down into smaller, more manageable and more specific parts. Organized by breaking it down into subcategories. Choose topics you know well when writing this type of essay. Make sure you break down your topic at least 3 different ways. Process analysis The purpose is to explain how to do something or how something works. In chronological order, step by step instructions on how something is accomplished. Always have someone else read it to make sure it makes sense. Always use strong details and clear examples. Definition The purpose is to simply define something. It is organized by context, the circumstance, conditions, or settings in which something occurs or exists. Clearly define what you’re writing about. Make sure everything is organized. Compare and Contrast The purpose is to highlight the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. It is organized by introduction, body, and conclusion. There should be advantages and disadvantages. Use comparing and contrasting to find likes or differences. Comparisons focus on similarities and contrast focuses on differences. Cause and The purpose is to answer why are things like this? What is the effect, or result, of this? What is the cause of this? Explain how one event leads to another. Make a list of causes and prioritize them according to their significance on the effect. Put causes under main categories and explain them if you find too many interrelated information. Persuasion The purpose is to convince, or persuade, the reader that the opinion, or assertion, or claim of the writer is correct or valid. It is organized by intro, body, and conclusion. Remember to enter their world, provide the reader with compelling evidence. Write a 100- to 150-word paragraph explanation that demonstrates why compare and contrast is the appropriate rhetorical mode for the topic you chose in Week Two. Compare and contrast is the appropriate rhetorical mode for the topic I chose because I have two of the similar objects that will be compared and contrasted and also the differences of the two. I will be comparing and contrasting the two methods of losing weight, which are diet and exercise or diet pills. In the process of me comparing and contrasting the two I will be learning a lot about what I am in the process of doing which makes this project so interesting to me. I am sure there is going to be a lot of similarities and differences.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Walt Disney Company A Diversified International Family...

The Walt Disney Company is a diversified international family entertainment and media enterprise with five business segments. The five business segments that contribute to The Walt Disney Company’s dominant long standing success are Media Networks, Parks and Resorts, The Walt Disney Studios, Disney Consumer Products, and Disney Interactive. Leading the company as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer is Bob Iger. Bob Iger joined The Walt Disney Company during Disney’s acquisition of ABC Network. Iger worked his way up the ranks succeeding Michael Eisner in 2005. Next in line from CEO, Bob Iger, is Chief Operating Officer, Tom Staggs. Tom Staggs joined The Walt Disney Company in 1990 after leaving an investment banking career with Morgan Stanley Company. The Walt Disney Company leads the trail for all of the other entertainment companies to follow. The core principles that guide The Walt Disney Company were shaped by its founder Walt Disney. After success in the film industry, Walt Disney wanted to create a place where he himself could take his children to have fun for a day. A place where children and adults alike could enjoy time spent together uncovering new and unique experiences. Luckily, Walt Disney was a dreamer and a doer. Walt Disney opened the gates to Disneyland in Anaheim, California in 1955. The theme park turned out to be a massive success with higher demand than anticipated. There was so much demand in fact that Walt began to dream up anotherShow MoreRelatedThe Walt Disney Company Analysis873 Words   |  4 Pages â€Å"The Walt Disney Company is a leading diversified international family entertainment and media enterprise with five business segments: media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment, consumer products and interactive media.† (The walt disney, n.d.) 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With an average of $43 billion dollars in annual sales, Walt Disney offers investors the benefits of a blue-chip company by being capable of a market-beating growth with estimated earningsRead MoreDisney Land Shanghai - a Case Study1181 Words   |  5 PagesDisney Land Shanghai – A Case Study Introduction The Walt Disney Company is an American diversified multinational mass media corporation. It is the largest media conglomerate in the world in terms of revenue. It generated US$ 42.278 billion in 2012. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923, by Walt and Roy Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, and established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production, television, and travelRead MoreThe Disney Studios Marketing Strategy2266 Words   |  10 Pages The Walt Disney Studios Marketing Strategy IDP Marketing Strategy Burcu, Jackson, Yutaka, Mohit, Kejin History and Background of the Walt Disney Company The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is a leading diversified international family entertainment and media enterprise. It was founded by Walt Disney and Roy O.Read MoreCase Study : Disney Studios And Universal Studios1864 Words   |  8 Pagesto two companies, The Walt Disney Studios and Universal Studios. The Walt Disney Studios has been the foundation from which The Walt Disney Company was built. It markets on a global scale encompassing creativity in all of their sales networks. Universal’s theatrical slate includes films developed internally ,and outside firms distributed by the studio. In my report I will use a SWOT analysis in deciding which company best caters to my career goals. THE IDEAL COMPANY FOR ME The ideal company that